Ann Intern Med. 2020 Jan 21;172(2):104
Authors: Christman BW
PMID: 31958836 [PubMed - in process]
Ann Intern Med. 2020 Jan 21;172(2):104
Authors: Christman BW
PMID: 31958836 [PubMed - in process]
Response by Mueller et al to Letter Regarding Article, "Deletion of Macrophage Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein 1 (LRP1) Accelerates Atherosclerosis Regression and Increases C-C Chemokine Receptor Type 7 (CCR7) Expression in Plaque Macrophages".
Circulation. 2019 04 16;139(16):1983-1984
Authors: Mueller PA, Zhu L, Tavori H, Huynh KT, Giunzioni I, Stafford JM, Linton MF, Fazio S
PMID: 30986111 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Proton Pump Inhibitors vs Histamine-2 Receptor Blockers for Stress Ulcer Prophylaxis in Critically Ill Patients: Issues of Interpretability in Pragmatic Trials.
JAMA. 2020 Jan 17;:
Authors: Rice TW, Kripalani S, Lindsell CJ
PMID: 31950973 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
An International Multi-Center Evaluation of Type 5 Long QT Syndrome: A Low Penetrant Primary Arrhythmic Condition.
Circulation. 2020 Jan 16;:
Authors: Roberts JD, Asaki SY, Mazzanti A, Bos JM, Tuleta I, Muir AR, Crotti L, Krahn AD, Kutyifa V, Shoemaker MB, Johnsrude CL, Aiba T, Marcondes L, Baban A, Udupa S, Dechert B, Fischbach P, Knight LM, Vittinghoff E, Kukavica D, Stallmeyer B, Giudicessi JR, Spazzolini C, Shimamoto K, Tadros R, Cadrin-Tourigny J, Duff HJ, Simpson CS, Roston TM, Wijeyeratne YD, El Hajjaji I, Yousif MD, Gula LJ, Leong-Sit P, Chavali N, Landstrom AP, Marcus GM, Dittmann S, Wilde AAM, Behr ER, Tfelt-Hansen J, Scheinman MM, Perez MV, Kaski JP, Gow RM, Drago F, Aziz PF, Abrams DJ, Gollob MH, Skinner JR, Shimizu W, Kaufman ES, Roden DM, Zareba W, Schwartz PJ, Schulze-Bahr E, Etheridge SP, Priori SG, Ackerman MJ
Background: Insight into type 5 long QT syndrome (LQT5) has been limited to case reports and small family series. Improved understanding of the clinical phenotype and genetic features associated with rare KCNE1 variants implicated in LQT5 was sought through an international multi-center collaboration. Methods: Patients with either presumed autosomal dominant LQT5 (N = 229) or the recessive Type 2 Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome (JLNS2, N = 19) were enrolled from 22 genetic arrhythmia clinics and 4 registries from 9 countries. KCNE1 variants were evaluated for ECG penetrance (defined as QTc > 460ms on presenting ECG) and genotype-phenotype segregation. Multivariable Cox regression was used to compare the associations between clinical and genetic variables with a composite primary outcome of definite arrhythmic events, including appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator shocks, aborted cardiac arrest, and sudden cardiac death. Results: A total of 32 distinct KCNE1 rare variants were identified in 89 probands and 140 genotype positive family members with presumed LQT5 and an additional 19 JLNS2 patients. Among presumed LQT5 patients, the mean QTc on presenting ECG was significantly longer in probands (476.9 ± 38.6ms) compared to genotype positive family members (441.8 ± 30.9ms, p<0.001). ECG penetrance for heterozygous genotype positive family members was 20.7% (29/140). A definite arrhythmic event was experienced in 16.9% (15/89) of heterozygous probands in comparison with 1.4% (2/140) of family members (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 11.6, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.6-52.2; p=0.001). Event incidence did not differ significantly for JLNS2 patients relative to the overall heterozygous cohort (10.5% [2/19]; HR: 1.7, 95% CI: 0.3-10.8, p=0.590). The cumulative prevalence of the 32 KCNE1 variants in the Genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD), which is a human database of exome and genome sequencing data from now over 140,000 individuals, was 238-fold greater than the anticipated prevalence of all LQT5 combined (0.238% vs. 0.001%). Conclusions: The present study suggests that putative/confirmed loss-of-function KCNE1 variants predispose to QT-prolongation, however the low ECG penetrance observed suggests they do not manifest clinically in the majority of individuals, aligning with the mild phenotype observed for JLNS2 patients.
PMID: 31941373 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Phenome-based approach identifies RIC1-linked Mendelian syndrome through zebrafish models, biobank associations and clinical studies.
Nat Med. 2020 Jan;26(1):98-109
Authors: Unlu G, Qi X, Gamazon ER, Melville DB, Patel N, Rushing AR, Hashem M, Al-Faifi A, Chen R, Li B, Cox NJ, Alkuraya FS, Knapik EW
Discovery of genotype-phenotype relationships remains a major challenge in clinical medicine. Here, we combined three sources of phenotypic data to uncover a new mechanism for rare and common diseases resulting from collagen secretion deficits. Using a zebrafish genetic screen, we identified the ric1 gene as being essential for skeletal biology. Using a gene-based phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) in the EHR-linked BioVU biobank, we show that reduced genetically determined expression of RIC1 is associated with musculoskeletal and dental conditions. Whole-exome sequencing identified individuals homozygous-by-descent for a rare variant in RIC1 and, through a guided clinical re-evaluation, it was discovered that they share signs with the BioVU-associated phenome. We named this new Mendelian syndrome CATIFA (cleft lip, cataract, tooth abnormality, intellectual disability, facial dysmorphism, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder) and revealed further disease mechanisms. This gene-based, PheWAS-guided approach can accelerate the discovery of clinically relevant disease phenome and associated biological mechanisms.
PMID: 31932796 [PubMed - in process]
Sympathetic Enhancement of Memory T Cell Homing and Hypertension Sensitization.
Circ Res. 2020 Jan 13;:
Authors: Xiao L, Do Carmo L, Foss JD, Chen W, Harrison DG
Rationale: Effector memory T lymphocytes (TEM cells) exacerbate hypertension in response to repeated hypertensive stimuli. These cells reside in the bone marrow for prolonged periods and can be reactivated upon re-exposure to the hypertensive stimulus. Objective: Because hypertension is associated with increased sympathetic outflow to the bone marrow, we hypothesized that sympathetic nerves regulate accumulation and reactivation of bone marrow residing hypertension-specific TEM cells. Methods and Results: Using unilateral superior cervical ganglionectomy in wild-type C57BL/6 mice, we showed that sympathetic nerves create a bone marrow environment that supports residence of hypertension-specific CD8+ T cells. These cells, defined by their proliferative response upon co-culture with dendritic cells from angiotensin II infused mice, were reduced in denervated compared to innervated bone of angiotensin II-infused mice. Adoptively transferred CD8+ T cells from angiotensin II-infused mice preferentially homed to innervated compared to denervated bone. In contrast, ovalbumin responsive T cells from OT-I mice did not exhibit this preferential homing. Increasing superior cervical ganglion activity by activating Gq-coupled DREADD (designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug) augmented CD8+ TEM bone marrow accumulation. Adoptive transfer studies using mice lacking β2 adrenergic receptors (β2AR) indicate that β2AR in the bone marrow niche, rather than T cell β2AR is critical for TEM cell homing. Inhibition of global sympathetic outflow using Gi-coupled DREADD injected into the rostral ventrolateral medulla or treatment with a β2AR antagonist reduced hypertension specific CD8+ TEM cells in the bone marrow and reduced the hypertensive response to a subsequent response to low dose angiotensin II. Conclusions: Sympathetic nerves contribute to the homing and survival of hypertension-specific TEM cells in the bone marrow after they are formed in hypertension. Inhibition of sympathetic nerve activity and β2AR blockade reduces these cells and prevents the blood pressure elevation and renal inflammation upon re-exposure to hypertension stimuli.
PMID: 31928179 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Evolving Concepts in how Viruses Impact Asthma.
J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2020 Jan 08;:
Authors: Altman MC, Beigelman A, Ciaccio C, Gern JE, Heymann PW, Jackson DJ, Kennedy JL, Kloepfer K, Lemanske RF, McWilliams LM, Muehling L, Nance C, Peebles RS
Over the last decade, there have been substantial advances in our understanding about how viral infections regulate asthma (Table 1). Important lessons have been learned from birth cohort studies examining viral infections and subsequent asthma, understanding the relationships between host genetics and viral infections, the contributions of respiratory viral infections to patterns of immune development, the impact of environmental exposure on severity of viral infections, and how the viral genome influences host immune responses to viral infections. Further, there has been major progress in our knowledge about how bacteria regulate host immune responses in asthma pathogenesis. In this article, we also examine the dynamics of respiratory tract bacterial colonization during viral upper respiratory tract infection, in addition to the relationship of the gut and respiratory microbiomes with respiratory viral infections. Finally, we focus on potential interventions that could decrease virus-induced wheezing and asthma. There are emerging therapeutic options to decrease severity of wheezing exacerbations caused by respiratory viral infections. Primary prevention is a major goal and a strategy toward this end is considered.
PMID: 31926183 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Appraising the role of previously reported risk factors in epithelial ovarian cancer risk: A Mendelian randomization analysis.
PLoS Med. 2019 08;16(8):e1002893
Authors: Yarmolinsky J, Relton CL, Lophatananon A, Muir K, Menon U, Gentry-Maharaj A, Walther A, Zheng J, Fasching P, Zheng W, Yin Ling W, Park SK, Kim BG, Choi JY, Park B, Davey Smith G, Martin RM, Lewis SJ
BACKGROUND: Various risk factors have been associated with epithelial ovarian cancer risk in observational epidemiological studies. However, the causal nature of the risk factors reported, and thus their suitability as effective intervention targets, is unclear given the susceptibility of conventional observational designs to residual confounding and reverse causation. Mendelian randomization (MR) uses genetic variants as proxies for risk factors to strengthen causal inference in observational studies. We used MR to evaluate the association of 12 previously reported risk factors (reproductive, anthropometric, clinical, lifestyle, and molecular factors) with risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer, invasive epithelial ovarian cancer histotypes, and low malignant potential tumours.
METHODS AND FINDINGS: Genetic instruments to proxy 12 risk factors were constructed by identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were robustly (P < 5 × 10-8) and independently associated with each respective risk factor in previously reported genome-wide association studies. These risk factors included genetic liability to 3 factors (endometriosis, polycystic ovary syndrome, type 2 diabetes) scaled to reflect a 50% higher odds liability to disease. We obtained summary statistics for the association of these SNPs with risk of overall and histotype-specific invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (22,406 cases; 40,941 controls) and low malignant potential tumours (3,103 cases; 40,941 controls) from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). The OCAC dataset comprises 63 genotyping project/case-control sets with participants of European ancestry recruited from 14 countries (US, Australia, Belarus, Germany, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Norway, Canada, Poland, UK, Spain, Netherlands, and Sweden). SNPs were combined into multi-allelic inverse-variance-weighted fixed or random effects models to generate effect estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Three complementary sensitivity analyses were performed to examine violations of MR assumptions: MR-Egger regression and weighted median and mode estimators. A Bonferroni-corrected P value threshold was used to establish strong evidence (P < 0.0042) and suggestive evidence (0.0042 < P < 0.05) for associations. In MR analyses, there was strong or suggestive evidence that 2 of the 12 risk factors were associated with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer and 8 of the 12 were associated with 1 or more invasive epithelial ovarian cancer histotypes. There was strong evidence that genetic liability to endometriosis was associated with an increased risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (odds ratio [OR] per 50% higher odds liability: 1.10, 95% CI 1.06-1.15; P = 6.94 × 10-7) and suggestive evidence that lifetime smoking exposure was associated with an increased risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (OR per unit increase in smoking score: 1.36, 95% CI 1.04-1.78; P = 0.02). In analyses examining histotypes and low malignant potential tumours, the strongest associations found were between height and clear cell carcinoma (OR per SD increase: 1.36, 95% CI 1.15-1.61; P = 0.0003); age at natural menopause and endometrioid carcinoma (OR per year later onset: 1.09, 95% CI 1.02-1.16; P = 0.007); and genetic liability to polycystic ovary syndrome and endometrioid carcinoma (OR per 50% higher odds liability: 0.89, 95% CI 0.82-0.96; P = 0.002). There was little evidence for an association of genetic liability to type 2 diabetes, parity, or circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and sex hormone binding globulin with ovarian cancer or its subtypes. The primary limitations of this analysis include the modest statistical power for analyses of risk factors in relation to some less common ovarian cancer histotypes (low grade serous, mucinous, and clear cell carcinomas), the inability to directly examine the association of some ovarian cancer risk factors that did not have robust genetic variants available to serve as proxies (e.g., oral contraceptive use, hormone replacement therapy), and the assumption of linear relationships between risk factors and ovarian cancer risk.
CONCLUSIONS: Our comprehensive examination of possible aetiological drivers of ovarian carcinogenesis using germline genetic variants to proxy risk factors supports a role for few of these factors in invasive epithelial ovarian cancer overall and suggests distinct aetiologies across histotypes. The identification of novel risk factors remains an important priority for the prevention of epithelial ovarian cancer.
PMID: 31390370 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
N Engl J Med. 2019 12 12;381(24):2338-2351
Authors: Castells M, Khan DA, Phillips EJ
PMID: 31826341 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Polypill for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in an Underserved Population. Reply.
N Engl J Med. 2020 01 02;382(1):95
Authors: Wang TJ, Muñoz D, Blot WJ
PMID: 31875511 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
DP1 Activation Reverses Age-Related Hypertension via NEDD4L-Mediated T-bet Degradation in T Cells.
Circulation. 2020 Jan 02;:
Authors: Kong D, Wan Q, Li J, Zuo S, Liu G, Liu Q, Wang C, Bai P, Duan SZ, Zhou B, Gounari F, Lu A, Lazarus M, Breyer RM, Yu Y
Background: Blood pressure (BP) often rises with aging, but exact mechanisms are still not completely understood. With aging, the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines increases in T lymphocyte. Prostaglandin (PG) D2, a pro-resolution mediator, suppresses Th1 cytokines through D-prostanoid receptor 1 (DP1). In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of PGD2/DP1 axis in T cells on age-related hypertension. Methods: To clarify the physiological and pathophysiological roles of DP1 in T cells with aging, peripheral blood samples were collected from young and older male participants and CD4+ T cells were sorted for gene expression, PG production and western bot assays. Mice BP was quantified by invasive telemetric monitor. Results: PGD2/DP1 axis was down-regulated in CD4+ T cells from older humans and aged mice, DP1 deletion in CD4+ T cells (TDP1KO) augmented age-related hypertension in aged male mice by enhancing Th1 cytokine secretion, vascular remodeling and CD4+ T cells infiltration, superoxide production in vasculature and kidneys. Conversely, forced expression of exogenous DP1 in T cells retarded age-associated hypertension in mice by reducing Th1 cytokine secretion. TNFα neutralization or IFNγ deletion ameliorated the age-related hypertension in TDP1KO mice. Mechanistically, DP1 inhibited Th1 activity via the Gαs/PKA/p-Sp1/NEDD4L pathway-mediated T-bet ubiquitination. T-bet deletion or forced NEDD4L expression in CD4+ T cell attenuated age-related hypertension in TDP1KO mice. DP1 receptor activation by BW245C prevented age-associated BP elevation and reduced vascular/renal superoxide production in male mice. Conclusions: PGD2/DP1 axis suppresses age-related Th1 activation and subsequent hypertensive response in male mice through increase of NEDD4L-mediated T-bet degradation by ubiquitination. Therefore, the T cell DP1 receptor may be an attractive therapeutic target for age-related hypertension in males.
PMID: 31893939 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Clinical Features and Outcomes of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor-Associated AKI: A Multicenter Study.
J Am Soc Nephrol. 2020 Jan 02;:
Authors: Cortazar FB, Kibbelaar ZA, Glezerman IG, Abudayyeh A, Mamlouk O, Motwani SS, Murakami N, Herrmann SM, Manohar S, Shirali AC, Kitchlu A, Shirazian S, Assal A, Vijayan A, Renaghan AD, Ortiz-Melo DI, Rangarajan S, Malik AB, Hogan JJ, Dinh AR, Shin DS, Marrone KA, Mithani Z, Johnson DB, Hosseini A, Uprety D, Sharma S, Gupta S, Reynolds KL, Sise ME, Leaf DE
BACKGROUND: Despite increasing recognition of the importance of immune checkpoint inhibitor-associated AKI, data on this complication of immunotherapy are sparse.
METHODS: We conducted a multicenter study of 138 patients with immune checkpoint inhibitor-associated AKI, defined as a ≥2-fold increase in serum creatinine or new dialysis requirement directly attributed to an immune checkpoint inhibitor. We also collected data on 276 control patients who received these drugs but did not develop AKI.
RESULTS: Lower baseline eGFR, proton pump inhibitor use, and combination immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy were each independently associated with an increased risk of immune checkpoint inhibitor-associated AKI. Median (interquartile range) time from immune checkpoint inhibitor initiation to AKI was 14 (6-37) weeks. Most patients had subnephrotic proteinuria, and approximately half had pyuria. Extrarenal immune-related adverse events occurred in 43% of patients; 69% were concurrently receiving a potential tubulointerstitial nephritis-causing medication. Tubulointerstitial nephritis was the dominant lesion in 93% of the 60 patients biopsied. Most patients (86%) were treated with steroids. Complete, partial, or no kidney recovery occurred in 40%, 45%, and 15% of patients, respectively. Concomitant extrarenal immune-related adverse events were associated with worse renal prognosis, whereas concomitant tubulointerstitial nephritis-causing medications and treatment with steroids were each associated with improved renal prognosis. Failure to achieve kidney recovery after immune checkpoint inhibitor-associated AKI was independently associated with higher mortality. Immune checkpoint inhibitor rechallenge occurred in 22% of patients, of whom 23% developed recurrent associated AKI.
CONCLUSIONS: This multicenter study identifies insights into the risk factors, clinical features, histopathologic findings, and renal and overall outcomes in patients with immune checkpoint inhibitor-associated AKI.
PMID: 31896554 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Fine-mapping of 150 breast cancer risk regions identifies 191 likely target genes.
Nat Genet. 2020 Jan 07;:
Authors: Fachal L, Aschard H, Beesley J, Barnes DR, Allen J, Kar S, Pooley KA, Dennis J, Michailidou K, Turman C, Soucy P, Lemaçon A, Lush M, Tyrer JP, Ghoussaini M, Marjaneh MM, Jiang X, Agata S, Aittomäki K, Alonso MR, Andrulis IL, Anton-Culver H, Antonenkova NN, Arason A, Arndt V, Aronson KJ, Arun BK, Auber B, Auer PL, Azzollini J, Balmaña J, Barkardottir RB, Barrowdale D, Beeghly-Fadiel A, Benitez J, Bermisheva M, Białkowska K, Blanco AM, Blomqvist C, Blot W, Bogdanova NV, Bojesen SE, Bolla MK, Bonanni B, Borg A, Bosse K, Brauch H, Brenner H, Briceno I, Brock IW, Brooks-Wilson A, Brüning T, Burwinkel B, Buys SS, Cai Q, Caldés T, Caligo MA, Camp NJ, Campbell I, Canzian F, Carroll JS, Carter BD, Castelao JE, Chiquette J, Christiansen H, Chung WK, Claes KBM, Clarke CL, GEMO Study Collaborators, EMBRACE Collaborators, Collée JM, Cornelissen S, Couch FJ, Cox A, Cross SS, Cybulski C, Czene K, Daly MB, de la Hoya M, Devilee P, Diez O, Ding YC, Dite GS, Domchek SM, Dörk T, Dos-Santos-Silva I, Droit A, Dubois S, Dumont M, Duran M, Durcan L, Dwek M, Eccles DM, Engel C, Eriksson M, Evans DG, Fasching PA, Fletcher O, Floris G, Flyger H, Foretova L, Foulkes WD, Friedman E, Fritschi L, Frost D, Gabrielson M, Gago-Dominguez M, Gambino G, Ganz PA, Gapstur SM, Garber J, García-Sáenz JA, Gaudet MM, Georgoulias V, Giles GG, Glendon G, Godwin AK, Goldberg MS, Goldgar DE, González-Neira A, Tibiletti MG, Greene MH, Grip M, Gronwald J, Grundy A, Guénel P, Hahnen E, Haiman CA, Håkansson N, Hall P, Hamann U, Harrington PA, Hartikainen JM, Hartman M, He W, Healey CS, Heemskerk-Gerritsen BAM, Heyworth J, Hillemanns P, Hogervorst FBL, Hollestelle A, Hooning MJ, Hopper JL, Howell A, Huang G, Hulick PJ, Imyanitov EN, KConFab Investigators, HEBON Investigators, ABCTB Investigators, Isaacs C, Iwasaki M, Jager A, Jakimovska M, Jakubowska A, James PA, Janavicius R, Jankowitz RC, John EM, Johnson N, Jones ME, Jukkola-Vuorinen A, Jung A, Kaaks R, Kang D, Kapoor PM, Karlan BY, Keeman R, Kerin MJ, Khusnutdinova E, Kiiski JI, Kirk J, Kitahara CM, Ko YD, Konstantopoulou I, Kosma VM, Koutros S, Kubelka-Sabit K, Kwong A, Kyriacou K, Laitman Y, Lambrechts D, Lee E, Leslie G, Lester J, Lesueur F, Lindblom A, Lo WY, Long J, Lophatananon A, Loud JT, Lubiński J, MacInnis RJ, Maishman T, Makalic E, Mannermaa A, Manoochehri M, Manoukian S, Margolin S, Martinez ME, Matsuo K, Maurer T, Mavroudis D, Mayes R, McGuffog L, McLean C, Mebirouk N, Meindl A, Miller A, Miller N, Montagna M, Moreno F, Muir K, Mulligan AM, Muñoz-Garzon VM, Muranen TA, Narod SA, Nassir R, Nathanson KL, Neuhausen SL, Nevanlinna H, Neven P, Nielsen FC, Nikitina-Zake L, Norman A, Offit K, Olah E, Olopade OI, Olsson H, Orr N, Osorio A, Pankratz VS, Papp J, Park SK, Park-Simon TW, Parsons MT, Paul J, Pedersen IS, Peissel B, Peshkin B, Peterlongo P, Peto J, Plaseska-Karanfilska D, Prajzendanc K, Prentice R, Presneau N, Prokofyeva D, Pujana MA, Pylkäs K, Radice P, Ramus SJ, Rantala J, Rau-Murthy R, Rennert G, Risch HA, Robson M, Romero A, Rossing M, Saloustros E, Sánchez-Herrero E, Sandler DP, Santamariña M, Saunders C, Sawyer EJ, Scheuner MT, Schmidt DF, Schmutzler RK, Schneeweiss A, Schoemaker MJ, Schöttker B, Schürmann P, Scott C, Scott RJ, Senter L, Seynaeve CM, Shah M, Sharma P, Shen CY, Shu XO, Singer CF, Slavin TP, Smichkoska S, Southey MC, Spinelli JJ, Spurdle AB, Stone J, Stoppa-Lyonnet D, Sutter C, Swerdlow AJ, Tamimi RM, Tan YY, Tapper WJ, Taylor JA, Teixeira MR, Tengström M, Teo SH, Terry MB, Teulé A, Thomassen M, Thull DL, Tischkowitz M, Toland AE, Tollenaar RAEM, Tomlinson I, Torres D, Torres-Mejía G, Troester MA, Truong T, Tung N, Tzardi M, Ulmer HU, Vachon CM, van Asperen CJ, van der Kolk LE, van Rensburg EJ, Vega A, Viel A, Vijai J, Vogel MJ, Wang Q, Wappenschmidt B, Weinberg CR, Weitzel JN, Wendt C, Wildiers H, Winqvist R, Wolk A, Wu AH, Yannoukakos D, Zhang Y, Zheng W, Hunter D, Pharoah PDP, Chang-Claude J, García-Closas M, Schmidt MK, Milne RL, Kristensen VN, French JD, Edwards SL, Antoniou AC, Chenevix-Trench G, Simard J, Easton DF, Kraft P, Dunning AM
Genome-wide association studies have identified breast cancer risk variants in over 150 genomic regions, but the mechanisms underlying risk remain largely unknown. These regions were explored by combining association analysis with in silico genomic feature annotations. We defined 205 independent risk-associated signals with the set of credible causal variants in each one. In parallel, we used a Bayesian approach (PAINTOR) that combines genetic association, linkage disequilibrium and enriched genomic features to determine variants with high posterior probabilities of being causal. Potentially causal variants were significantly over-represented in active gene regulatory regions and transcription factor binding sites. We applied our INQUSIT pipeline for prioritizing genes as targets of those potentially causal variants, using gene expression (expression quantitative trait loci), chromatin interaction and functional annotations. Known cancer drivers, transcription factors and genes in the developmental, apoptosis, immune system and DNA integrity checkpoint gene ontology pathways were over-represented among the highest-confidence target genes.
PMID: 31911677 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Luspatercept in Patients with Lower-Risk Myelodysplastic Syndromes.
N Engl J Med. 2020 01 09;382(2):140-151
Authors: Fenaux P, Platzbecker U, Mufti GJ, Garcia-Manero G, Buckstein R, Santini V, Díez-Campelo M, Finelli C, Cazzola M, Ilhan O, Sekeres MA, Falantes JF, Arrizabalaga B, Salvi F, Giai V, Vyas P, Bowen D, Selleslag D, DeZern AE, Jurcic JG, Germing U, Götze KS, Quesnel B, Beyne-Rauzy O, Cluzeau T, Voso MT, Mazure D, Vellenga E, Greenberg PL, Hellström-Lindberg E, Zeidan AM, Adès L, Verma A, Savona MR, Laadem A, Benzohra A, Zhang J, Rampersad A, Dunshee DR, Linde PG, Sherman ML, Komrokji RS, List AF
BACKGROUND: Patients with anemia and lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes in whom erythropoiesis-stimulating agent therapy is not effective generally become dependent on red-cell transfusions. Luspatercept, a recombinant fusion protein that binds transforming growth factor β superfamily ligands to reduce SMAD2 and SMAD3 signaling, showed promising results in a phase 2 study.
METHODS: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned patients with very-low-risk, low-risk, or intermediate-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (defined according to the Revised International Prognostic Scoring System) with ring sideroblasts who had been receiving regular red-cell transfusions to receive either luspatercept (at a dose of 1.0 up to 1.75 mg per kilogram of body weight) or placebo, administered subcutaneously every 3 weeks. The primary end point was transfusion independence for 8 weeks or longer during weeks 1 through 24, and the key secondary end point was transfusion independence for 12 weeks or longer, assessed during both weeks 1 through 24 and weeks 1 through 48.
RESULTS: Of the 229 patients enrolled, 153 were randomly assigned to receive luspatercept and 76 to receive placebo; the baseline characteristics of the patients were balanced. Transfusion independence for 8 weeks or longer was observed in 38% of the patients in the luspatercept group, as compared with 13% of those in the placebo group (P<0.001). A higher percentage of patients in the luspatercept group than in the placebo group met the key secondary end point (28% vs. 8% for weeks 1 through 24, and 33% vs. 12% for weeks 1 through 48; P<0.001 for both comparisons). The most common luspatercept-associated adverse events (of any grade) included fatigue, diarrhea, asthenia, nausea, and dizziness. The incidence of adverse events decreased over time.
CONCLUSIONS: Luspatercept reduced the severity of anemia in patients with lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes with ring sideroblasts who had been receiving regular red-cell transfusions and who had disease that was refractory to or unlikely to respond to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents or who had discontinued such agents owing to an adverse event. (Funded by Celgene and Acceleron Pharma; MEDALIST ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02631070; EudraCT number, 2015-003454-41.).
PMID: 31914241 [PubMed - in process]
Synthesis and properties of free-standing monolayer amorphous carbon.
Nature. 2020 Jan;577(7789):199-203
Authors: Toh CT, Zhang H, Lin J, Mayorov AS, Wang YP, Orofeo CM, Ferry DB, Andersen H, Kakenov N, Guo Z, Abidi IH, Sims H, Suenaga K, Pantelides ST, Özyilmaz B
Bulk amorphous materials have been studied extensively and are widely used, yet their atomic arrangement remains an open issue. Although they are generally believed to be Zachariasen continuous random networks1, recent experimental evidence favours the competing crystallite model in the case of amorphous silicon2-4. In two-dimensional materials, however, the corresponding questions remain unanswered. Here we report the synthesis, by laser-assisted chemical vapour deposition5, of centimetre-scale, free-standing, continuous and stable monolayer amorphous carbon, topologically distinct from disordered graphene. Unlike in bulk materials, the structure of monolayer amorphous carbon can be determined by atomic-resolution imaging. Extensive characterization by Raman and X-ray spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy reveals the complete absence of long-range periodicity and a threefold-coordinated structure with a wide distribution of bond lengths, bond angles, and five-, six-, seven- and eight-member rings. The ring distribution is not a Zachariasen continuous random network, but resembles the competing (nano)crystallite model6. We construct a corresponding model that enables density-functional-theory calculations of the properties of monolayer amorphous carbon, in accordance with observations. Direct measurements confirm that it is insulating, with resistivity values similar to those of boron nitride grown by chemical vapour deposition. Free-standing monolayer amorphous carbon is surprisingly stable and deforms to a high breaking strength, without crack propagation from the point of fracture. The excellent physical properties of this stable, free-standing monolayer amorphous carbon could prove useful for permeation and diffusion barriers in applications such as magnetic recording devices and flexible electronics.
PMID: 31915396 [PubMed - in process]
A brief history of human disease genetics.
Nature. 2020 Jan;577(7789):179-189
Authors: Claussnitzer M, Cho JH, Collins R, Cox NJ, Dermitzakis ET, Hurles ME, Kathiresan S, Kenny EE, Lindgren CM, MacArthur DG, North KN, Plon SE, Rehm HL, Risch N, Rotimi CN, Shendure J, Soranzo N, McCarthy MI
A primary goal of human genetics is to identify DNA sequence variants that influence biomedical traits, particularly those related to the onset and progression of human disease. Over the past 25 years, progress in realizing this objective has been transformed by advances in technology, foundational genomic resources and analytical tools, and by access to vast amounts of genotype and phenotype data. Genetic discoveries have substantially improved our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for many rare and common diseases and driven development of novel preventative and therapeutic strategies. Medical innovation will increasingly focus on delivering care tailored to individual patterns of genetic predisposition.
PMID: 31915397 [PubMed - in process]